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Orthodontics And Dentofacial Orthopedics Mcnamara Pdf 16
if the reader was to visit our dental school website, search under selected publications for a pdf version of our book orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, they can download it for free. i hope that dr mcnamara and i will someday be able to use this book, which we have had a hand in producing, to help teach our students about the great history of orthodontics.
the most important point about orthodontics is that orthodontics is a part of a patient’s total treatment plan. this means that orthodontists should, whenever possible, integrate orthodontics with other dental specialties. this is most obviously true for the fields of pediatric dentistry, orthopedics, and general dentistry. however, it also is true of maxillofacial surgery, periodontics, oral pathology, and of course, prosthodontics. the combination of orthodontics and general dentistry in the treatment of a patient’s dentofacial deformities is a great example of integrated dentistry. the ability to look at the dentofacial deformity, determine the etiology, and then plan the best treatment for each individual is a great gift that the orthodontist has to give to each patient.
the first microimplants were so-called “mini-implants” about a decade ago. they were small, gold-coated, cylindrical devices, which were placed with the use of a surgical screwdriver and were associated with a microscopic hole in the bone. although the mini-implants were not as biocompatible as the later versions, they were a major step forward in the field of orthodontics. later, the microimplants were machined out of pure titanium, sometimes in combination with niobium or zirconium. the average diameter of the devices was about 2mm, with a length of about 6mm. when placed into bone, the surface of the implant would become covered with bone-like apatite in about 4 weeks.
chapter 6 relates my subsequent efforts in this field. i went through a period of learning and experimenting with various forms of headgear, including some of the baseball style. i also used the appliance in conjunction with the digo as an adjunct to anterior movement of the mandible. i designed the hamp-up appliance to apply headgear force to the anterior region of the maxilla as well as increasing the length of the upper dentition.
chapter 7 deals with the use of tooth extraction as an adjunct to orthodontic therapy for patients with amelogenesis imperfecta. these patients have hypoplastic enamel. this type of enamel is porcelain-like. it is somewhat translucent. the main problem is that it does not form a fully developed crystalline structure until well into the fourth to fifth years of the patients life. this is a critical period for orthodontic treatment.
chapter 8 is about the use of permanent tooth extraction to change the bite pattern and to open the anterior upper arch. the authors note that in young patients, it is difficult to forcibly extract a tooth for the purpose of altering the bite pattern. this is due to the development of the third maxillary molar.16 these authors also suggest that the lower anterior teeth are not fully erupted until the age of 13 to 14 years. this is well before the growing child can be fully aware of the need to force the permanent incisors anteriorly to change the position of the mandible. this requires full cooperation of the patient with a focused physical treatment program. in the case of patients with amelogenesis imperfecta, bite pattern alteration is virtually impossible.